The accountability movement in higher education is gaining momentum in the United States ( and around the world (Teichler, 2012). In recent years, there has been a growing pressure on higher education institutions to demonstrate their value through various accountability measures with a strong focus upon the assessment of student progress and success (Mazzeo, 2001). In the U.S. this pressure has come from state and federal government (Ewell, 2002; Kochan, & Locke, 2010), accrediting agencies (Lubinescu, Ratcliff & Gaffney, 2001), parents (Huba & Freed, 2001), and the general public (Baker, 2004). Additionally, the changing environment within the teaching and learning process is impacting the manner in which students will be assessed and the purposes of this assessment (Hainline, Gaines, Feather, Padilla, & Terry, 2010; Huba & Freed, 2000). Thus, there is a growing recognition that higher education leaders will need to be prepared to address this and other complex issues that will inevitably affect higher education institutions (Altbach, Bozeman, Janashia, & Rumbley, 2006; Freeman & Kochan, 2012). This makes the role of the president in this process more vital and important as administrators must be the ones to provide funding and other types of support (Hainline et al., 2010). ACCESS FULL MANUSCRIPT AT:

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