In this article, we analyzed past and present research studies in which investigators examined differences in academic achievement between students who were White and non-White (i.e., specifically Hispanic or students designated as Limited English Proficient).  As anticipated, the majority of the researchers whose studies were analyzed reported that White students outperformed all other groups of minority students on all standardized achievement measures, with the exception of Asian American students who outperformed White students in all academic standardized tests and at all grade levels.  Concomitant with the achievement gap studies, a theoretical framework through which the achievement gap may be understood was present.  Finally, implications for school personnel, monetary spending, and classrooms were provided. FULL MANUSCRIPT AVAILABLE AT:

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