This review of the literature on the effectiveness of student retention focuses on longitudinal studies. The paper is organized into four major sections that cover a brief introduction to the retention literature, studies showing a negative impact on children, studies showing a positive impact, and research that has come out of two hotbeds of retention research: Texas and Chicago. The literature tends to show that the negative effects of retention on children outweigh the positive and that the benefits of retention are often short-lived.  


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