Bethney Bergh

Joan Cowell

Northern Michigan University



In this study, school disciplinary procedures/programs used in response to disciplinary referrals and programs that schools have in place to prevent, intervene, and respond to behaviors that result in suspensions or expulsions from the classroom or school were investigated. The focus of this study was school leaders’ concerns regarding the effectiveness of the programs and procedures currently in place within their schools.  Identification of programs to address the specific needs of special education students that are used in addition to or separate from the programs used with the general education population was an additional focus.  The use of reintegration programs to assist any suspended or expelled student in successfully returning to the classroom or school environment was examined.  Students receiving special education services incur a disproportionate number of discipline infractions, and often school remedial behavior programs do not work effectively to change behavior (Losen & Gillespies, 2012; Rose, Monda-Amaya, & Espelage, 2010; Skiba, Peterson & Williams, 1997). 

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